The Travels of John Prideaux through the U.S. and the U.K. in 1900

The journal is the property of Pamela Prideaux of Portland, Oregon and her family.  I have permission to copy it here and allow some fascinating insights into the means of travel in the year 1900. Pamela is the granddaughter of George Prideaux who stayed behind in Portland while his parents, John and Jane (Mamma) and their eldest son Arthur John (later to become a lauded School Principal) went to the UK by train and ship and used so many forms of transport on their trip that they are worth mentioning.
Train.
Street Car.
Ship.
Coach.
Gingle.
Bus.
Wagonette.
Ferry boat.
Pony and trap.
Legs.

The family grew up in Milwaukie, Oregon and had a wonderful childhood. There was also a sister to Arthur and George called Katherine, who married a cattle rancher in Terrebonne, Oregon.Their children Stewart and John and family still run the ranch as a B&B and wedding venue and dude ranch. It is apparently a wonderful place to stay.
John and his family take us from Portland to New York and then to Liverpool. Soon we arrive in Devon and from there to Cornwall and spend several weeks visiting their friends and family and learn fascinating insights in the way people lived, worked and socialised during the last couple of years of the reign of Queen Victoria.
I have only altered spellings where I felt necessary and kept the rest. Some names (people and place) may be incorrect, but I was trying to decipher work written 117 years ago. If you see that a name is incorrect, then please let me know.

The journals will now follow as a series.
I am more than grateful that this particular branch of the Prideaux family has given us all the chance to follow their travels and learn about what it was like in America and Cornwall during the year 1900.

An Baner Kernewek February 2017

Featured in this month’s An Baner Kernewek /Cornish Banner

The Cornish Banner / An Baner Kernewek is Cornwall’s foremost cultural magazine. Now in its 41st year and having reached No. 167 it is the land’s longest running serious quarterly.
As well as providing up-to-date commentary on the current world scene the magazine deals with contemporary events in Cornwall and has articles on its history, culture and the arts by leading writers. An interesting feature looks at the history of islands and regions in other parts, putting the Cornish experience in perspective. Having completed in past issues a series on Cornish people in the 20th century, which has recently been published as a book in two volumes, the editor now has articles on Cornish personalities in the Georgian period, including Sir Francis Basset/Lord de Dunstanville, Charles Rashleigh and Christopher Wallis, a Helston attorney. Dygemysker’s “Cornish Notes”, consisting of extracts from the previous three months issues of the daily Western Morning News, provide local readers and those overseas with an invaluable record of their native land. “Cornish Gleanings” by Tom Tucker, contributions by talented poets, book reviews and shorter pieces complete the pages of Cornwall’s most distinguished journal which is well supported by local advertisers

Annual post subscription – inland £15.00, Continent £20.00, airmail £25.00.

Daphne du Maurier and her Cornish homes

Daphne du Maurier (1907 – 1989) and her Cornish homes.

Dame Daphne du Maurier, Lady Browning, DBE, first saw Fowey in 1923 while descending Bodinnick Hill during a search for a holiday home with her mother and sisters. The family had taken several holidays in Cornwall and Daphne had always enjoyed them but secretly hoped that if a holiday home were to be bought, it would be in France.
Upon seeing the town of Fowey across the harbour, seemingly painted against a backdrop of woods and with the business of a working port in the foreground, Daphne knew that this was the place she had often seen in her dreams. The family arrived at the bottom of Bodinnick hill and parked alongside the inn there. Gerald and Muriel du Maurier noticed a house to their left, which had previously been part of the old boatyard, was now for sale. Daphne and her sisters immediately trespassed, as was their habit.

Ferryside, Bodinnick

The small property occupied a delicious spot overlooking the estuary where the water rushed past the wall. The tiny lawn was often under water and only a few lilac bushes managed to straggle by the edge of the property. 
The house emerged from the side of the hill and was built using old timbers.  It had been designed with small rooms upstairs and down, linked by narrow staircases and corridors. It was not until 1926 when the alterations were finally completed that the family could spend more time at Ferryside.
Nineteen year old Daphne would walk her dog Bingo to Lanteglos Church and the other-worldly quiet valley in which it sits. She did not know then that she would marry at that church. On other days she would catch the ferry from outside Ferryside to Fowey from where she trudged to Readymoney Cove and Polridmouth past Gribben, Polkerris and Par. On these adventures she walked in her future footsteps, passing her homes and final resting place.
Daphne was 20 on the 12th May 1927 and celebrated the event with her mother Muriel and sisters, Jeanne and Angela at Ferryside. The following day the family left Daphne alone at Ferryside while they travelled home to London. During her short solitary stay, Daphne learnt to sail with a local man called Adams and listened to tales of his family and the schooner Jane Slade and she began to mentally ‘brew’ her first successful novel, ‘The Loving Spirit.

The Nook, Bodinnick

On 3rd October 1929, Daphne was given permission to stay at Ferryside for the winter and write. She was however, to lodge with Miss Roberts at The Nook, across the lane from Ferryside. This tiny cottage had no bathroom and the ‘lav’ sat at the bottom of the small garden. Miss Roberts cooked for Daphne and washed her clothes and trotted upstairs with her washing water. Miss Roberts gossiped and comforted Daphne while allowing her freedom. Daphne slept and ate her meals at The Nook and then wrote at Ferryside and later walked or sailed before she locked up Ferryside at 7 pm and returned to the care of Miss Roberts. There she chatted, read and went to bed early, listening to the comforting sound of the water.
Daphne  further researched the stories she had heard from Adams. She had written many notes on the history of the schooner, Jane Slade , Fowey and Bodinnick from information gathered during her sailing lessons. Now she was free to set about writing ‘The Loving Spirit.’ She wrote diligently and had only a couple of breaks from her work, travelling back to Cannon Hall in London to be with her family. She left her unfinished manuscript and dog Bingo in the safe care of Miss Roberts. It took only a few months for Daphne to complete her novel and The Loving Spirit was soon on the journey which would ultimately bring Daphne fame, fortune and a husband.
The artist Frances Hodgkins enjoyed similar hospitality with Miss Roberts during 1931 when she painted ‘Wings over Water, which imitated the view from The Nook across the river and featured Miss Roberts’s large red parrot with which Daphne had enjoyed many conversations.
Daphne kept in touch with Miss Roberts in the following years and visited her in hospital in the autumn of 1938 where she lay stricken with cancer of the bowel. Miss Roberts still chattered and gossiped and told Daphne not to worry about the possibility of an upcoming war, bringing Daphne to shame for her own fears.


The Haven, Fowey

The Haven has been owned by Sir Arthur Quiller Couch since 1892 and occupied by him for half of every year when he was not at Cambridge where he held the chair in English. J M Barrie had introduced him to the du Mauriers when he discovered that they were to live at Ferryside. Daphne greatly admired Q and his work and reputation and it was his influence in her writing which helped her to mature and hone her craft.
During Daphne’s Winter of 1929, she would take supper with the Quiller Couches every Sunday.
Q’s daughter, Foy Quiller Couch became great friends with Daphne and they spent a good deal of their time in each other’s company. They walked and rode together, one of their rides being across Bodmin Moor where Daphne was introduced to Jamaica Inn, sowing seeds of an idea for one of her future bestsellers.
The Haven is a Grade II listed building, making the list on the 11th March 1974,

C19 house of Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch. Stucco and brick with slate hipped roof. Front to harbour has 2-storey bay flanked by 2 sash windows, without glazing bars, on each side. Quoins. Facade to road has verandah on left.

Listing NGR: SX1233251462

Q died in 1944 and in the following years, Foy persuaded Daphne to complete his final work, ‘Castle Dor’, which she did eventually publish in 1962. Daphne, such an admirer of Q’s, was terrified that she had not done his work justice, but reviews and sales proved the contrary.


8 Readymoney Cove (Readymoney Cottage)

In late 1942, Daphne now married to Tommy (Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Arthur Montague “Boy” Browning, GCVO, KBE, CB, DSO) for ten years and the mother of three children, left the Puxleys at Langley End and moved to Fowey. Tommy was living his war and Daphne being unable to move to the family home at Ferryside which had been requisitioned by the Navy, instead rented 8 Readymoney Cove.
The property had originally been the old stables and coach house for Point Neptune House, which had been built for the Rashleighs of Menabilly. It was a nice house, albeit small but with a garden leading directly to the beach.
She was writing ‘Hungry Hill’ based heavily on the life story of Christopher Puxley’s family. He and Daphne had had a dalliance at Langley End and writing this new novel meant that he must visit her at Fowey. He stayed at The Fowey Hotel where Daphne would meet him surreptitiously.

The Watch House

This stone and slate twelve foot square building sits above Watch House Cove between Polruan and Polperro and during the war was in a restricted zone. It had been a coastguard’s hut from where stone steps led to the beach. Daphne rented it for £5 per year and she and Puxley would go there for their trysts aka information-gathering meetings for the new novel.
They felt safe from nosy neighbours and gossips and believed their visits to be secret, although anyone who had lived in a small community knows that it was highly unlikely that they were not seen.

Menabilly

As the lease for Readymoney Cove was nearing its end, Daphne heard that Dr. Rashleigh may consider leasing Menabilly to her. Daphne and her sister had first seen the beautiful house on one of their 1926 walks when they had investigated several routes in order to find this mystical place. Daphne fell in love with the unoccupied house immediately upon seeing it and would ‘trespass’ many times during the following years, imagining that she lived there. Latterly Dr Rashleigh had allowed her to walk through the woods anytime she wanted to.
Dr Rashleigh was 71 and had no heir, so the estate was to go to his cousin. He decided that he would sell the contents of Menabilly and lease it at a very low rent until his own death. The tenant would however be responsible for the upkeep and repair of Menabilly. The first job would be a new roof, a huge outlay of £30,000 as it turned out.
In 1943, Daphne agreed to a 20 year lease in spite of advice to the contrary. She intended to plug the financial gap by writing more books and this she did. Several of her best sellers such as, ‘The Kings General, ‘My Cousin Rachel’, ‘The Birds’ ‘Rule Britannia and ‘Rebecca’, amongst others, were based there.
Careful reading of the first chapter of Rebecca reveal her memory narrative  of searching for Menabilly with her sister and the difficulty of traversing the overgrown pathways through the woods.
By 1958 as the lease was nearing its end and Daphne began trying to persuade Dr. Rashleigh to give her another lease. His cousin’s son Philip was now the heir and he intended to live at Menabilly as soon as he inherited. They negotiated for two more years until in 1960 Dr Rashleigh agreed a further 23 year lease so long as Daphne took responsibility for the care of all the woodlands on the estate. She readily accepted and looked forward to the future again. She also began negotiations for the lease of Kilmarth, the Menabilly dower house further along the coastline towards Par.
Dr Rashleigh died shortly afterwards and Daphne learned that her highly paid lawyer had omitted to have the agreed lease signed and her 23 year future at Menabilly was vanishing before her eyes.
However, further negotiation with Philip Rashleigh gave her a seven year extension to the 1943 twenty year lease and Daphne felt safe enough to write another novel.
It also meant that she was also able to entertain The Queen and Prince Philip there in July 1962.
Tommy died in 1965 and Daphne was now living alone at Menabilly when Philip Rashleigh began pushing for her early departure. She had four years left on the Menabilly lease and had been negotiating for a further fifteen years, although she had also paid a deposit on the Kilmarth property. The two parties negotiated quite keenly, even having a serious talk at Menabilly where Philip Rashleigh told her he may extend the lease for seven years if she paid for the demolition of a decaying wing at the property.
Daphne was always willing to fight for her dreams but was still feeling fragile from her so recent widowhood.
Eventually Rashleigh decided that he would not renew Menabilly when the current lease expired and he intended to move there with his family. He would however allow her to have Kilmarth for her lifetime.

Kilmarth

Daphne signed the lease for Kilmarth in 1968 and began more renovations and repairs there which she complained were draining her finances. She had spent so much of her own money on Menabilly that it is of no surprise that she complained. But the house was beautiful and had the lovely views and privacy she craved. She could walk down to the beach and along the coast path with her West Highland Terrier, Moray at least once a day.
She had the builders convert a small basement room into a chapel. She kept in the orchard, what was left of Ygdrasil, the boat in which Tommy had first chugged past Ferryside all those years ago under the eyes of Daphne and her sisters and in which they had honeymooned at Helford.
Daphne soon realised that Kilmarth had a wonderful atmosphere and the epic views from the house of St Austell Bay, she wished Tommy could have seen.
She finally moved to Kilmarth in June 1969 and began her new routine. She initially often walked over to Menabilly but soon stopped because it distressed her so much. Instead she took her walks around the fields at Kilmarth and down to the beach there. It was several years before she began her regular Monday visits to the Rashleighs at Menabilly.
As Daphne settled at Kilmarth, she began writing yet another novel, ‘The House on the Strand.’  It was based on her research of her new property and then merged with her own incredible imagination.
In 1989 Daphne was 81. Most of her friends were dead and she had decided she wanted to die too. She stopped eating and dropped down to six stone. On the 16th April she asked her friend to drive her down to Pridmouth beach where Rebecca had died, followed by a visit to Menabilly and lastly, to her sister at Ferryside.
Daphne went to bed on the 18th April and died in her sleep.
Her funeral was on the 26th April with a thanksgiving service at Tregaminion Chapel by the famous gates at Menabilly. The chapel was filled with her favourite camellias.
Her ashes were scattered on the beach below Kilmarth, where she had walked almost every day of her life there.

Bredon Church and John Prideaux

I called in at Bredon Church to see the grave site of Bishop John Prideaux.
He spent his last years living with his daughter and son in law and was buried at the church following a large and well attended funeral. Details of his life, death, will  can be found on my other blogs on this site.

I was disappointed to see that his gravestone was placed underneath a rug in front of the altar. I hope that this was because the congregation are worried that it will be damaged by constant footfall. There is a plaque on the wall acknowledging him, but stating that he died a pauper. This is a common and repeated misconception which has been passed down. He certainly lost his Bishopric and church livings and position at Exeter College, Oxford following the Civil War, but he left a good deal of money and possessions in his will. It was his sons in law who sold off his possessions quite swiftly, following John’s death. I don’t know how much his two remaining daughters were happy with that.

Part of his biography on the plaque states’

‘stofordiae pago obscuro sed ingenius parentibus natus’ – born in an obscure village, Stowford, to land holding parents –

2016-09-19-13-50-35

In addition to the blogs on the site, I have already written and published one book about John Prideaux and more are in the pipeline.

Tywardreath Priory

Tywardreath Priory

There is no current visible trace of Tywardreath Priory.
There have been recent attempts by the local people of Tywardreath to find it again using modern means. But it has been so flattened and all top stones and other artefacts taken away over the centuries, that discovery is difficult.
A gentleman of the parish wrote the following article in an edition of the Gentleman’s Magazine in 1922,
‘The ancient priory of Tywardreath has long been so entirely levelled with the ground, that it is not very easy even to ascertain its site. Some time ago the present vicar obtained leave to dig the ground on its supposed site in search of stones for erecting a vicarage house. The place where he made an excavation for this purpose appears to have been the east end of the priory chapel; and as some measurements were taken at the time , and I have, with the permission of the landlord, opened the ground in several places, partly of throwing some light on its architecture, the following particulars may not be unacceptable.
The chapel appears, so far as could be ascertained by measurement, to have been eighty feet long, by fifty seven wide, with a semi-circular end towards the east; strengthened by four buttresses of wrought Pentewan stone, two feet wide, and ornamented by four pilasters; within the shafts are a single half-column, four inches in diameter. At each angle was a handsome piece of architecture, as it was described to me, of which pilasters, resembling those already described, formed a part, but with the base five inches wide, and the mouldings in proportion.
In the vicarage garden, adjoining the west end of the chapel, a fragment of a stone arch was found, with a fleur-de-lis elegantly carved in deep relief; the same devise appears on the church stile, and in a coat of arms in one of the windows of the church, and appears from tanner to have been part of the arms of the priory. The wall of the chapel is the south wall of the churchyard.
The chapel was paved with beach pebbles, and was built partly of common clay slate raised on the spot; the wrought stones were of compact hard porphyry, from Pentewan Quarry in the parish of St. Austell, and hornblende from the cliff between Duporth and Charlestown in the same parish. All the carved work is executed with much skill and taste.’
Although nothing now remains above ground, there is a story which abounds that the last stone was shipped back to France by the last Prior. There is no proof of this, although the story has been passed down by oral tradition.
The Priory stood at the water’s edge and ships would dock and leave from here. Much of Par and St Blazey was underwater and the sea fingered its way inland to Prideaux and further at high tide. The monks built a causeway from Tywardreath to St Blazey, but three men, one a monk, died one day when they failed to check the tides. A ferry was used at other times.
As the Priory expanded, so did the satellite houses, farms and alehouses which would normally surround such a place. The waterside was busy and sea travel and fishing occurred here in addition to Fowey.
It has often been reported since the fall of the Priory, that monks are seen to wander about the church and the area and their chants heard.
The seal of the convent was a saltire or St. Andrews cross. Sometimes the seal was displayed between four fleurs-de-lis.

It is stated in the Monasticon Anglicanum the following;
‘Tywardreit a cell to Angiers in France.
Robert de Cardinham gave divers Lands and Revenue in Cornwall to the church of St Sergius of Angiers and to the Church of St Andrew in Tywardrait and to the monks there all which was confirm’d by King Henry III.’

This entry gives the impression that Robert de Cardinham built the Priory at Tywardreath, however deeper investigation shows that the priory was already built and in use by the ‘black monks’ of France and that Cardinham made substantial financial contribution to the priory’s upkeep and extension.
Prior to 1066 the lands of Tywardreath were in the control of the Saxon Lord Cola before the Conqueror and then fell to Richard FitzTorold, the steward of Count Robert, the King’s brother.
Robert FitzWilliam who died sometime between 1169 and 1177, is recorded in 1166 Cartae Baronum as the holder of the lands which had been formerly been held by Richard FitzTurold. In 1169, he and his son Robert made a gift to Tywardreath Priory.
Following his death, his son Robert de Cardinham was forced to pay a large feudal relief in Devon in order to gain his inheritance. He owned at least 71 Knight’s fees in Cornwall, from the successor of the Count of Mortain. One of his holdings was a mill at Cardinham which serviced the Tywardreath Priory.
It was his son, Robert de Cardinham (died 1230) – heir of Robert FitzWilliam (de Cardinham) – who made gifts to the already established priory at Tywardreath, written of in the Monasticon Anglicanum.
Establishment of Tywardreath Priory.
A long term and well established trade route passed through the area from the Camel to Fowey. Goods were shipped from Ireland to Cornwall and then from Fowey to Britanny and the Mediterranean and back. This was a hugely influential area where monks and travellers came to make secret meetings and where smugglers and pirates abounded.
King Henry II and Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine had great connections to her ancestral inheritance in Angers and it may have been this connection to the house of SS Sergius and Bacchus which encouraged the French monks to arrive and establish a daughter house at Tywardreath. Sergius and Bacchus were two Romans violently executed and martyred when they refused to approve of their leaders murderous violence.
Henry and Eleanor wanted a spy satellite in this faraway edge of his kingdom.
According to the History of Glasney College (James Whetter); the foundation date for Tywardreath Priory is given as 1088, although the building was not completed until 1135. Osbert was the first prior who ruled by the favour of Lord Robert FitzTorold. Henry’s chief agent, the Bishop of Salisbury set in motion the beginning of the priory.
The Tywardreath connection is the first documented reference I have so far found to the Manor of Pridias (later Prideaux), although many connections are documented in retrospect.
Osbert, the Prior at Tywardreath granted to Baldwin de Pridias;
‘One knight’s fee in the manor of Pidias, to hold to him and his heirs, except an acre of land in Carnubelbanathel for which the monks of Tywardreath rendered annually to the said Baldwin 20d, for all customs, &c, as written in the charter of convention between Ordagar the Canon and Richard de Pidias Father of the said Baldwin.’
The charter was initially drawn up in 1120-1122 between Canon Ordagar and Richard de Pridias, the son of Paganus, but Richard died in 1122. This document remained unsigned until 1130 when Baldwin, the son of Richard, came of age and was rewritten.
The Benedictine priory initially housed about seven monks, the endowment being sufficient for that number. The priory, although poor, controlled the port of Fowey and had lands scattered over Cornwall. They rented some of the Pridias lands and I assume that this is what the charter was for.
The Crown began to mistrust the monks, an opinion which continued until its eventually downfall during the purges of Henry VIII. They were believed to be passing on gossip and finances to the French Abbott and assisting traitors. For this reason the Crown often took the monastery under its protection and confiscated money and goods, leaving the monks poor and reliant upon the goodwill of their neighbours. These neighbours were rather suspicious of the French monks, but used them for their skills with herbs and their ability to work in harmony with the more ‘natural’ practices of the first people of Cornwall.
There was an annual charge on the priory’s income, which was known as a corrody. This was to pay for the board and lodging of founders when they visited. Originally a voucher, later money, was used and this could then more easily be transferred to the Crown as a pension. In 1486 Henry VII recommended that his servant William Martyn be granted a corrody of 5 marks a year to be charged on the manors of Tywardreath and Trenant. A corrody was held in Tywardreath Priory in 1509 by Hugh Denys of Osterley Groom of the King’s Close Stool to Henry VII. On the death of Denys, Henry VIII transferred the corrody (“in the King’s gift by death of Hugh Denys”) to John Porth, another courtier.
All the French monks were expelled between 1400 and 1405 and in 1406 it became the home for English monks, who built up a thriving community until 1536 when it was supressed. In 1535 the Valor Ecclesisticus drawn for King Henry VIII, the priory had been valued at less than £200 annually,
Records show that there were 19 unsuccessful attempts to persuade Prior Thomas Colyns to retire gracefully from office shortly before the Dissolution, but he would not. It is not known whether the Priory documents went into the Arundell archive from the Prior or the King’s agent.
At the time of the Dissolution the Arundells were vying with the Grenvilles and Godolphins to obtain the lands of Tywardreath (see AL Rowse, Tudor Cornwall, pp. 209-10.). Thomas Arundell came into possession of the priory documentation. He was for a while in charge of the commission for dissolving the monasteries and would thus have been one of the few people in a position to remove the documents from the priory. Thomas could arrange to have the documents removed to Lanherne hoping that his family would acquire the priory lands. They didn’t succeed however. Grenville held them instead.
At Tywardreath Priory, newly writ documents were often smoked to make them look old and substantiate a claim.
Oliver’s Monasticon displays a document indicating that Grenville held the lands and then leased them to Sir John Arundell and Arundell sub-let the lands to Laurence Courtenay in 1542 (Oliver, Monasticon, p. 45, no. XXIV.). The documentation regarding the priory still remain in the Arundell Archive. John Grenville (CRO, CA/B44/1) eventually sold the lands to the Rashleigh family and the Earl of Hertford (Rowse, Tudor Cornwall, p. 205 and p. 210.).
List of Priors
1. Michael c.1250 – 1263
2. Galfridus 1263 – c. 1278
3. Philip c.1297 – 1324
4. William Bouges 1333 – 1371
5. William de la Hay 1371 – 1399
6. John Masselyn 1399 – 1406
7. John Roger 1406 – 1433
8. John Brentyngham 1433 – 1450
9. Walter Barnecot 1450 – 1496
10. Richard Martyn 1496 – 1506
11. Thomas Colyns 1507 – 1536

Tywardreath Priory lands were organised into eight manors for purposes of administration:
1. Manor of St Austell: seat of manor was in St Austell; tenements also in St Stephen in Branel.
2. Manor of Fentrigan: not an original manor but created as a means of administering the priory’s scattered lands in Altarnun, Davidstow, Lesnewth, Otterham, Treneglos, Warbstow, Week St Mary and Whitstone.
3. Manor of Fowey: seat of manor and all tenements were in Fowey. The borough of Fowey belonged to Tywardreath Priory. The court rolls here are for Fowey manor; it is not clear whether there was also a separate borough court.
4. Manor of Gready: not an original manor but formed from scattered lands in St Austell, Cardinham, Lanlivery, Lanivet and Luxilian.
5. Manor of Porthia: not an original manor but formed from scattered lands in St Anthony in Meneage, Gulval, St Ives, Lelant, Madron, Manaccan, Towednack, Zennor and possibly Ludgvan.
6. Manor of Trenant: seat of manor was in Fowey; tenements also in Tywardreath.
7. Manor of Trevennen: seat of manor was in Goran; tenements also in St Erme, Goran, St Michael Carhays and Probus.
8. Manor of Tywardreath Prior: seat of manor was in Tywardreath; tenements also in St Austell, St Endellion, St Enoder, St Sampson Golant, Lanlivery, St Martin by Looe and Menheniot.

The tenements of each manor,
• St Austell Manor
• St Austell town (Austoll, Austolle, Austolus) in St Austell parish
• Fentrigan Manor
• Carneglos in Altarnun parish [presumably]
• Fentrigan (Fentregan, Fentygan, Ventregan, Ventregan) in Warbstow parish
• Froxton (Forkeston) in Whitstone parish
• Helset in Lesnewth parish
• Penaton (Peneton) in Davidstow parish
• ‘Trehybyow’ [unidentified]
• Tredarrup (Tretharap) in Warbstow parish
• Witheven (Withefenne) in Warbstow parish
• Fowey Manor
• Fowey (Fawy) in Fowey parish
• Gready Manor
• Cardinham Mill (Cardinan, Cardynam) in Cardinham parish
• ‘Le Forthynglond’ [presumably] in Lanlivery parish
• Goom (Le Gomm) in Lanlivery parish
• Upper Gready (Gredyou superior) in Lanlivery parish
• Lanlivery (Lanlevery, Lanlyuery) in Lanlivery parish
• Layhays (Leslof?) in Cardinham parish
• ‘Lebiri’ [unidentified] in Cardinham parish
• Tretharrup (Trewartharape) in Luxilian parish
• Porthia Manor
• St Anthony in St Anthony in Meneage parish
• Bolenna (Bolaynow, Bolenowe) in Towednack parish
• Boscobben (Boscum) in Zennor parish
• ‘Boscomol 1′ [unidentified; possibly Boskennal in Ludgvan parish ?]
• Bosilliack (Boswolsekk) in Madron parish
• Bosoljack (Boswouleck) in Gulval parish
• Carn Bolenna (Carn Bolenow) in Towednack parish
• Carnelloe (Carnellow) in Zennor parish
• Chyangweal (Chyangwele) in Towednack parish
• Dennis (Dynese) in St Anthony in Meneage parish
• Hendra in Lelant parish
• St Ives (Ias) in St Ives parish
• Lelant (Lanant, Lananta, Lananth, Lannantha) in Lelant parish
• Malinnan (Melyn Manan,
• Myllenan) [lost] in St Anthony in Meneage parish’Melyncres’ (Myllyncrees) [unidentified]
• ‘Parkemane at Carnsu’ [unidentified]
• Pednolva (Penwolva) in St Ives parish
• Penbeagle (Penbygell) in St Ives parish
• ‘Placenor or Placetorten’ [probably in St Ives town and parish]
• Porthminster (Polmester) in St Ives parish
• Rosecaddon (Rescaden) in Manaccan parish
• Skyburrier (Scuburyowe) in St Anthony in Meneage parish
• ‘Torrm’ [?] [unidentified]
• Tregenna (Tregene) in St Ives parish
• Trewey (Trethewe) in Zennor parish
• Trevail (Treveel, Trevell) in Zennor parish
• Treveglos in Zennor parish
• ‘Treveylla’ [unidentified]
• Trenwith (Trevnwyth) in St Ives parish
• Trenant Manor
• Caffa Mills (Caghmylle, Caigthmyll, Caigthmylle) in Fowey parish
• Coombe (Comb, Combe, Legom?) in Fowey parish
• ‘Drenek’ [unidentified, presumably near to Trewalls in Fowey parish]
• Fowey in Fowey parish
• Lankelly (Nankilly) in Fowey parish
• Little Lawhyre (Lawhire Parua, Litellawhyra, Lityll Lawhere, Lytell Awhyr, Lytill Awhyre) in Fowey parish
• Lescrow (Lescrawe, Lescrowe, Loscrowe) in Fowey parish
• Long Stone (Langestone, Langiston) in Fowey parish
• Trenant Barton in Fowey parish
• Trewalls (Trewale) [lost] in Fowey parish [near Coombe]
• Trevennen Manor
• Godarricks (Godarek) in Goran parish
• Pengelly (Pengelly Pryour) in St Erme parish
• Trevaskus (Trevalscoys) in Goran parish
• Trevennen (Tremaignon, Tremanion, Tremanyon, Tremaynon, Trevanyon) in Goran parish
• Trewalla or Trewolla (Trewalaveour, Trewalavighan, Trewalemur) in Goran parish
• Tywardreath Prior Manor
• ‘Bowete’ [unidentified; possibly compare Bovewood in St Sampson Golant parish]
• Caruggatt (Carogat, Carregot, Carrogat, Carulgad, Corrogat) in Tywardreath parish
• Coldharbour (Trefory alias Coldeherber, Trevory) [lost] in Tywardreath parish
• Par (le Par) in Tywardreath parish
• Kilgogue (?Keligog, Kellygoke) in Tywardreath parish
• Lancrow moor (Lancrowemor) in Lanlivery parish [tin-works in, adjacent to Trevorry in Lanlivery parish]
• Trefingey (Trefrongye) in Tywardreath parish
• Treesmill (Treysmyll) in Tywardreath parish
• ‘Tressaveour’ (Tresaveour, Trusavor) [lost in the north part of St Austell parish]
• Tywardreath town in Tywardreath parish
• Tywardreath Manors by Parish
• Altarnun parish – Fentrigan Manor
• St Anthony in Meneage parish – Porthia Manor
• St Austell parish – St Austell Manor, Tywardreath Prior Manor
• Cardinham parish – Gready Manor
• Davidstow parish – Fentrigan Manor
• St Erme parish – Trevennen Manor
• Fowey parish – Fowey Manor, Trenant Manor
• Goran parish – Trevennen Manor
• Gulval parish – Porthia Manor
• St Ives parish – Porthia Manor
• Lanlivery parish – Gready Manor, Tywardreath Prior Manor
• Lelant parish – Porthia Manor
• Lesnewth parish – Fentrigan Manor
• Ludgvan parish – Porthia Manor
• Luxilian parish – Gready Manor
• Madron parish – Porthia Manor
• Manaccan parish – Porthia Manor
• St Sampson Golant parish – Tywardreath Prior Manor
• Towednack parish – Porthia Manor
• Tywardreath parish – Tywardreath Prior Manor
• Warbstow parish – Fentrigan Manor
• Whitstone parish – Fentrigan Manor
• Zennor parish – Porthia Manor

Mulfra Vean New Mill Cornwall

In 1790 Robert Prowse was born in Paul, just outside Penzance. He married Grace who was born in 1800 and they had seven children. William, Grace, Robert. Margaret, Susanna, Jane and Elizabeth. They worked on the land. His brother William also had a family and settled in New Mill also just outside Penzance.
and they had William, John, James, Ann and Richard.
William [1841] worked as a tin miner at New Mill on Mulfra Hill. He married Ellen and they had William H, Eliza E, James T and John. Eventually by 1881 he managed to buy a 13 acre farm on Mulfra Hill and their family had increased by Edwin C, Eveline J, Grosvenor and Aromulous H.
William married and had a son William Robert on 2nd October 1906. He took over the farm at Mulfra and married Dorothy Violet, born 28th December 1902. [3 days after Granddad Clifford.]
He ran the place as a farm and also as a motor dealer and general dealer. He called the place Mulfra Vean Garage and was one of the first people to get a telephone in the tiny hamlet. It was prior to WW2 and his number was Penzance 581.
They carried on running the farm and garage and eventually in the late 50’s started taking in holidaymakers for BB and evening meal.
Mulfra Quoit was one of the ancient attractions and was within walking distance of the farm. Dad used to take us to Tintagel, Merry Maidens and other places along with St Ives and Lands End. Madron Workhouse was very near and has quite a history.
I remember the evening walks down the lane to the village  and Dad scaring us when he hid behind the hedges and jumped out.
I also remember how creepy the house was. There were many stuffed birds and animals about the place and I remember the musty smell. There was a stuffed Cornish Chough at the bottom of the stairs which Dad joked about for years. We ran from bed to loo in the middle of the night. Karen remembers clearly the ghost of a young girl in white standing by the bed and not going away.
Even so, I think back on the visits with fondness in spite of the really horrible paintings of dying dogs and drowning girls.
We eventually stopped visiting, I think because the meals became more boring. I do recall the last year that we had milk pudding every night. I have never touched semolina, tapioca etc since.
William died on April 1988 and Dorothy died May 1991.

Vean means small and Mul is the Cornish version of round topped hill (Welsh is moel and English is knoll) Mulfra Vean likely means farmstead on the small hill.

Pobo vean means little people or piskies.

quoit

Karate and Death

A friend brought this video to my attention shortly after he uploaded it to YouTube.

My father and brother (both black belts) are on this clip which was broadcast on the local news back in 1991. They ran the karate club along with a couple of others. Dad appears initially at 1.06 walking behind Ron Davies and Mark shows up at various points in the clip.  Mark can be seen best at 1.32 fighting with Ron during his grading.

Sad thing is, several of those who appeared are now dead. Dad died shortly after the filming, then Mark (both at a  ridiculously young age), then Ron, then…

The moral of this story may be,
Don’t appear on local TV.

BTW. Mark (as was I) was a Special Constable and our colleagues had to attend his death. When they asked for volunteers from the force for his  full police funeral,  the list went on and on.  He had a motor cycle escort and police cars and a  guard of honour. The escort took us on a tour of the town which lasted 10 minutes instead of taking the hearse the 1 minute drive to the church. People stopped in the street. We were all too traumatised to record it but I did take this snap.  He would have loved it – had he been alive…

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Prideaux Manor

Prideaux Manor

The Prideaux/Pridias family had a manor house at the base of the Prideaux hill fort since prior to the Norman invasion. The dwelling was knocked down and rebuilt in an improved style many times.

Lake states,

The ancient manor originally comprised Great and Little Prideaux, Lestoon, Levrean, Rosemullen, Trevanney, Trenince, and Ponts Mill in Luxulyan. Stenalees in St Austell, Grediow in Lanlivery, Biscovay in St Blazey, Carroget, Kilhalland, Rosegarth and Penpillick in Tywardreath. Gubbavean in St Issey, Nanscowe in St Breaock, and moieties in Golant, one of which was called Bakers.

During the time that the Herles became named owners of the property and lands due to the male Prideaux line here dying out, the house and land was known as Prideaux Herle. Wood, Drew and Reid are among many who have recorded that the Reverend Charles Herle Prideaux who matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford was born of honourable parents at Prideaux Herle, near Lystwithyel, Cornwall in 1598. (This branch of the family are to feature in my next Bishop John Prideaux book.)

I have a description of the manor house in some of my documents.

Of the ancient seat of the Herles, which within memory formed a complete quadrangle, the eastern side only remains. This portion was built early in the fourteenth century by Thomas Herle, who was one of the stannators of the stannary of Blackmore, 22 James 1. 1624 and 12 Charles 1, 1636. It comprised a large and handsome hall, with a carved roof and armorial bosses shewing the marriage connexiots of the family and one or two inferior apartments. Over the chimney of one of the upper rooms  the story of Perseus and Andromeda was represented in plaster, this with the stone stairs that led to the sleeping apartments have been removed. Over the chief entrance is a shield of twelve quarterings, surmounted with the crest of the Herles.

As the house originally stood intact, it was a venerable and interesting structure. Within the quadrangle was a well of excellent water and the only entrance which led direct to the north was from the north, which was so constructed as to appear to pass through a wall ten or twelve feet in thickness. The south and the west portions of the house were the most ancient, two of the upper rooms of which contained the arms of Prideaux, with quarterings and the family motto – In God is All.

 

From the Historical Survey of the County of Cornwall of 1820.

Luxulian, although wild and desolate in its general aspect, affords considerable matter for the entertainment of the tourist, namely its ancient church, two moveable stones called Logan Rocks, the venerable mansion, and decayed fortification called Prideaux Castle, and the singularly rocky valley, which opens and folds itself with astonishing grandeur through the country below.

The church is seated in moderate eminence, and with its tower, is built of wrought granite. The Gothic walls of the porch are embattled, and the ceiling very curiously ornamented. On the front over the arch, are the ancient arms of Prideaux……..

Prideaux Castle, the original seat of the Prideaux family, is supposed to have stood on an elevated spot, which has now the appearance of an ancient encampment. At a small distance on the northern side of these remains, is seated Prideaux House, which seems to have been built by the Herles, and their arms are still over the entrance. It is a rude quadrangular building, the apartments low and gloomy, and the stairs throughout are formed of moorstone. The hall, which is now used as a stable, is ornamented with shields of armorial bearings, cut in oak, and shew the marriage connexions of the Herles, during their residence at this place. The upper apartments exhibit some curious plasterwork, and on one of the chimney pieces is represented Perseus riding to the relief of Andromeda, who is represented chained to a rack, with a sea monster swimming towards her.

Medrose present house was built by the Kendalls. The hall is lined with oak, and has very curiously carved chimney piece, adorned with large human figures, and a variety of armorial bearings.

A little to the east of Prideaux Castle, stands the handsome modern mansion of John Coleman Rashleigh, esq. The best front has a southern prospect, and a coach road is carried through the grounds by an easy descent, into a small valley, which enters the great western road, at St. Blazey church town.

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An Baner Kernewek

An Baner Kernewek

The Cornish Banner / An Baner Kernewek is Cornwall’s foremost cultural magazine. Now in its 41st year and having reached No. 163 it is the land’s longest running serious quarterly.
As well as providing up-to-date commentary on the current world scene the magazine deals with contemporary events in Cornwall and has articles on its history, culture and the arts by leading writers. An interesting feature looks at the history of islands and regions in other parts, putting the Cornish experience in perspective. Having completed in past issues a series on Cornish people in the 20th century, which has recently been published as a book in two volumes, the editor now has articles on Cornish personalities in the Georgian period, including Sir Francis Basset/Lord de Dunstanville, Charles Rashleigh and Christopher Wallis, a Helston attorney. Dygemysker’s “Cornish Notes”, consisting of extracts from the previous three months issues of the daily Western Morning News, provide local readers and those overseas with an invaluable record of their native land. “Cornish Gleanings” by Tom Tucker, contributions by talented poets, book reviews and shorter pieces complete the pages of Cornwall’s most distinguished journal which is well supported by local advertisers

Annual post subscription – inland £15.00, Continent £20.00, airmail £25.00.

An Baner Kernewek

The Early History of the Prideaux Family by A A Prideaux is featured in Edition 163 February 2016.

Early 17th Century England

The Bishop and The Witch and Shudder are very different stories, but this film by Pudding Lane Productions  illustrates both very well. Early 17th Century England was a fantastical place.
I had similar images in my mind when writing both books. Although this film, created by six De Montfort students taking part in the Crytek Off the Map project is of 17th century London, the model fits perfectly for early 17th century Oxford of The Bishop and The Witch and mystery century Shudder.

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A Corpse Candle in rural Cheshire

I wrote a narrative about a Corpse Candle in The Specials, when the character Edith Prentice nee Trewen tells a psychiatrist about her encounter with one.  I based that episode on one which happened to me over a decade ago.
I was driving  late from Wrenbury to Whitchurch on the back roads. It was a journey I had taken several times and never had a problem, but this night I felt lost.  The narrow roads I usually took didn’t seem to be there and I turned right and left where I thought I should go, but didn’t seem to be getting nearer home.  There was no phone signal, so I could call no one and I was feeling very anxious. There seemed to be a lot of electricity in the air and all the time I was trying to keep a lid on my panic, I was noticing that I could see no houses, car lights or hear any sounds. I couldn’t work out where I was and it was not until  later when I went through the experience in my mind and checked on Google Maps that I worked out that it was somewhere between Marbury, Marley Green and Hollyhurst in a triangle between the meres.

I drove  (unusually) slowly and suddenly there it was.
A yellow flame in the middle of the road in front of me.
I stopped the car and just held on to the steering wheel. I am not a scaredy cat type of person and always confront my fears, rather than hide from them, but this time I didn’t know what to do. The flame looked exactly like a candle flame, the same shape and the same kind of flickering. The base did not reach the ground and I estimated it to be about one metre tall and in 3D. I looked around but could not see any lights anywhere and no people. That was not unusual in itself, as you can see when you look at the map above. And it was almost midnight. I had no clue where I was. No clue.
I just stared at it for about two minutes, although to be honest I did not time myself. My mind could not compute what I was looking at. I drove a little closer and began to get out of the car to have a look. But, then I thought how stupid that would be. I was in the middle of nowhere and leaving the safety of the car might mean a criminal, a ghost or an alien could grab me, or take the car or…  Think about the possibilities your frightened mind would come up with during an event like that. I thought of those and more. I have absolutely no idea why I did not take a photo, I didn’t think about that until much later.
So, I climbed back into my car, locked the doors and crept towards the flame. I did not reverse away, as I already didn’t know where I was and there was no way I could do a U turn . The flame did not move in front of me nor go out. I went on to the grass verge and went past it very slowly. The flame was hovering above the road, there was nothing igniting it, unless bare tarmac can magically produce this phenomena. I stopped next to it and checked that there was nothing on this lonely lane, bordered by narrow grass verges and hedgerows, except for this metre high flame and me. There was not.
By now, I wasn’t as scared, but still did not want to get out of the car. I felt as though I was electrified and I considered the possibility that I had died and should perhaps drive towards the light rather than around it.
But, I had a lot to do at home, so I drove quietly away instead of remaining. That was quite difficult to do though and I felt  almost magnetised to the flame and wanted to stay there.  Even as I drove away, I considered driving back and staying by it.  I didn’t however and drove on, noticing in my rear view mirror that the flame was still there. I don’t remember much of the journey back until I arrived at the street lights of Whitchurch. Then the experience went round and round my mind, while I tried to make sense of it.
I couldn’t and although I mentioned it to a couple of people, I soon stopped when their response was, ‘Oh, it was probably just something alight which had been thrown from a car, ‘or more usually, ‘been drinking had you?’ Neither of those explanations applied.
I have thought about the phenomena on and off ever since. When I researched similar happenings, the corpse candle explanation fitted better than any other.
The only event which occurred a few weeks later and completely out of the blue, was the sudden and unexpected death of my dear brother Mark.  I cannot say whether the two events are related and I have never seen a candle flame since.

Mark